Melchingen was documented for the first time in 772 A.D.. It was documented as a gift to the monastery of Lorsch in the Codex Laureshamensis. Three hundred years later it was mentioned again in the Zwiefalter Chronik, again as a gift.
The masters of Melchingen changed their services quite often during the middle ages. From 1254 onwards they served the Earls of Württemberg. In the 15th century the Earls of Werdenberg gained parts of the parish.
This change of power did not did not want any beneficial to the village, since the Werdenberg people did not need any competitors for their centre of power at Trochtelfingen.
At the end of the 13th century Melchingen, like other villages, seemed to have tried to expand into a town with a market and a centre of administration. Melchingen had the rights of a town, this is expressively mentioned in documents. The name “Vorstadt” (suburb) for the houses at one end of the village remains until today. Other things also prove an executive position: The right of a market, a place of a law court with gallows and the special arrangement of the village centred around the church. But the development into a town was not successful. Too many differing interests were at work. But probably the economic potential was missing as well.
And finally the Earls of Werdenberg were not interested in the development.
While belonging to the masters of Werdenberg Melchingen was hit by the biggest catastrophe in its history. Hans von Rechberg, one of the greatest warlords of the 15th century, who was in feud with the earls of Werdenberg, forced his way into the village together with 300 horsemen and some other warriors, looting, driving the cattle away and – on purpose or by accident – setting fire to some houses. The fire spread fast, and the villagers had not only lost all their possessions and their cattle but also their homesteads.
After the death of the last earl of Werdenberg, about 70 years later, Melchingen went together with the Werdenberg centre Trochtelfingen to the house of Fürstenberg, which resided in Donaueschingen.
Eventually Napoleon had numerous of the small territories dissolved, and Melchingen went to the territory of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.
In 1850 – during the revolution – the countries of Hohenzollern went to the kingdom of Prussia. After the removal of the monarchy with the Weimarer Republik in 1918 / 1919 the state of Prussia survived. Therefore the administration did not change in Melchingen. In 1925 administrative districts were founded. Melchingen was allocated to the district of Hechingen.
After the second world war the village was part of the French zone of occupying forces.
At the new beginning, after the war, Hohenzollern was able to save her independence quite well, but in 1952 with the foundation of the federate state of Baden-Württemberg the integration into the former Württemberg and Baden territories was initiated.
Stuttgart became the centre of administration. In 1973 the district of Hechingen was dissolved and integrated to the district of Balingen. The district is again called Hohenzollern. Melchingen is now assigned to Burladingen, a town with 12 smaller parishes.